Alpha Hydroxy Acids
What are Alpha Hydroxy Acids?
Alpha hydroxy acids are also called AHAs. They are chemical compounds that are naturally occurring from plants and animals. They can also be synthetically made. Most AHAs in skin care are synthetically made.
AHAs are popular additions to skin care for good reason. I’ve used them for over 30 years in my dermatology practice.
What are the different AHAs commonly used in skin care products?
- Glycolic acid (originally derived from sugar cane, the smallest molecule in the AHA class, and the best AHA for skin penetration)
- Lactic acid (originally from milk)
- Malic acid (originally from apples)
- Tartaric acid (originally from grapes)
- Citric acid (originally from citrus)
Most skin care products contain glycolic or lactic acid because they are definitely the most effective AHAs. The benefits of both are well studied.
What are the uses and benefits of AHA’s in skin care?
- AHA’s exfoliate the outer layer of skin, called the stratum corneum.
This brightens skin to a youthful glow. Glycolic acid is the best AHA for exfoliation.
- AHA’s treat dry skin by helping to bind water and stimulating skin to produce hyaluronic acid, which also binds water.
Both lactic acid and glycolic acid offer good benefit for dry skin.
- AHA’s brighten skin by a combination of exfoliation, hyaluronic acid production induction, and deep hydration.
Glycolic acid, with its small molecular size, is the most effective for this benefit.
- AHA’s can stimulate skin collagen renewal to reduce the appearance of scars, fine lines and wrinkles.
Glycolic acid is the best AHA for this. It’s ability to stimulate collagen renewal is well studied. Wrinkles, skin thinning, sagging, sallow and crepey skin all share a loss of collagen in the superficial dermis. All benefit from collagen renewal to help reverse these problems. To achieve this benefit, a glycolic acid product must have an acid pH and a concentration of glycolic acid over 10%.
- AHA's help reduceing skin hyperpigmentation from age spots, melasma and sun damage.
Glycolic acid is the best AHA for this. Pigmentation production is reduced and retained pigment in dead cells is sloughed, leading to improved uneven skin pigment. As with wrinkles, concentrations over 10% in acid pH products must be used.
- AHA's reduce acne lesions, especially blackheads.
AHAs are keratolytics, meaning they dissolve the 'glue' that holds dead cells together in clogged pores. When combined with salicylic acid (a beta hydroxy acid) they work even better, because salicylic acid is especially useful to penetrate down deep into oily pores.
- AHA's improve keratosis pilaris.
This genetic condition is characterized by follicular keratin plugs on the back of the arms, front of the thighs and even the back, facial cheeks and buttocks. Both glycolic acid and lactic acid work well to improve this condition.
- AHA's enhance penetration of other skin care ingredients.
All AHA’s help by virtue of their exfoliating benefits. Again, glycolic acid is well studied and highly effective owing to its small molecular size.
What are the side effects of AHA’s?
AHA’s can irritate sensitive skin. This can include redness, flaking and discomfort. If irritation continues, discoloration and even scarring may result. Exfoliation may also lead to sun sensitivity, and sun protection should be used with AHA skin treatment.
What is the best way to use AHA’s for skin care?
AHA’s are best used as daily products in creams, lotions or gels. Pick your product based on your skin type and product preference. Leave-on products are much more effective than rinse-off products such as cleansers. Strong AHA concentrations are also used professionally for chemical peels.
In my dermatology practice, the most popular AHA products include:
Glycolic Acid Anti-Wrinkle Face Cream. This hydrating, oil free cream comes in 10, 15 and 20% strength. It can be used day or night, and layers well with other products into your Dr. Bailey Complete Skin Care Routine for best results.
Glycolic Acid Face and Body Lotion is the go-to product for body care. The light-textured, hydrating and oil free lotion is made with 15% glycolic acid. It works especially well partnered with my Triple Action Exfoliating Cleanser and Salux Cloth in the Ultra-Fast Body Smoothing Triple Action Kit. Fight keratosis pilaris, uneven skin pigment from age spots, dry and flakey skin all in one routine. Get smooth skin with a dewy and youthful glow.
Ultimate Acne Solutions Kit combines glycolic acid with salicylic acid to clean deeply into pores. My Benzoyl Peroxide Acne Treatment Cream that is included in the kit penetrates more deeply with this product combination to help treat pimples and kill the P. acnes (now called C. acnes) bacteria that causes acne.
Bernstein, EF, et. al. (including Van Scott, E), Glycolic Acid Treatment Increases Type 1 Collagen mRNA and Hyaluronic Acid Content of Human Skin, Dermatologic Surgery 2001;27:429-433
Ditre CM et. al. (including Van Scott, E), Effects of alpha-hydroxy acids on photoaged skin; A pilot clinical, histologic, and ultrastructural study, Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 1996;34:187-195
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The perfect AHA face cream for normal and combination skin. Available in 10%, 15% and 20% strength for all skin types$31.00
Professional glycolic acid skin care products are among the best, non-prescription anti-wrinkle face creams that also fight sun spots. Glycolic acid rejuvenates and reverses so many of the signs of skin aging including: dull skin, fine lines and wrinkles, crepey skin, sun spots, and crusty age spots.$64.80
This rich soap-free cleanser brightens your complexion and leaves your skin silky smooth and ready for your treating and correcting products. Ideal for all skin types including oily skin because it gently but thoroughly removes product, oil, dirt and debris from the skin surface.$34.00
Eco-friendly beads combine with AHA and BHA to instantly brighten your complexion. Loosen dull dead cells and uneven pigmentation. Renew skin luster to a more youthful glow and instantly reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles.$46.00
Fade an uneven complexion almost instantly with the best pigment lightening products. Reverse fine lines and wrinkles and return your appearance to younger days. This kit has everything proven to do the job!$365.85
Most regular acne products are irritating to sensitive skin, but this acne treatment kit delivers the best acne medications at levels that are appropriate for sensitive skin.$54.45
Tolerant skin benefits from the high concentration of acne medicine in the Ultimate Acne Solutions Skin Care Kit, Extra Strength.$65.25
2% Glycolic Acid and 2% Salicylic Acid acne treatment medicines are strong enough to treat stubborn acne but gentle on sensitive skin.$21.00
Tolerant skin benefits from 10% glycolic acid, which I think is the ideal concentration to loosen black heads. These medicated pads perform this feat while lifting oil and debris from the skin.$28.00
This is an excellent exfoliating foaming cleanser that preps the skin for glycolic acid creams and lotions. It's an excellent cleanser for acne treatment or to exfoliate as part of an anti aging skin care regimen.$31.00
AHA therapy with a light water base for oily skin. Perfect for acne and anti-aging skin care for people with oily or normal skin.I have patients use it to improve acne and rejuvenate skin.$43.00
The same light water base for oily skin as in the Glytone Exfoliation Lotion #2 but with a stronger level of AHA therapy. I have patients use it to improve acne and rejuvenate skin. I recommend conditioning the skin by beginning with Lotion #2 and then advancing to #3.$47.00
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An extremely hydrating glycolic acid cream. It's a perfect starting point for beginning AHA therapy for dry skin types.$50.00